Personal Injury

Acts of God
In the context of the law, an "act of God" is an accident caused by extraordinary natural forces. An accident caused by lightning, a flood, a hurricane, or an earthquake may constitute an act of God.

Alternative Causes of an Injury
Ordinarily, a plaintiff in a personal injury action has the burden of proving that a defendant's negligence caused his or her injury. However, when a plaintiff proves that two defendants have committed negligent acts, and it is impossible to determine which act caused the plaintiff's injury, the burden of proof shifts to the defendants. Each defendant has the burden of proving that his or her negligent act did not cause the plaintiff's injury.

Liability of an Air Carrier for Providing Medical Assistance to a Passenger
Federal law does not require air carriers to provide medical assistance to passengers.

Publication of a Defamation
A lawsuit for defamation has the following basic elements: (1) making a false statement; (2) about a person; (3) to others; and (4) actual damages (if the harm to the person is not apparent). There is a fifth element when the person is a public official or public figure. The person who made the statement has to have made it with a known or reckless disregard of the truth. This article discusses the third element, making a statement to others, known as publication.

The Jones Act — Maintenance and Cure
Under the Jones Act and general maritime law, a seaman who is injured in the course and scope of his employment may recover "maintenance" and "cure" benefits from his employer, even if the employer was not negligent and the vessel was not unseaworthy. Maintenance and cure benefits are similar to workmen's compensation benefits; however, no government agency is involved in the administration of maintenance and cure benefits.

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